Exhibits | 展品
Hakka Kung Fu: From Rural to Urban |
The Rural Tradition – Hakka martial arts developed in rural villages in the mountainous borderland between Fujian and Guangdong. The formation and early development of Hakka kung fu took place in the period from the late Ming to mid-Qing after mid-eighteenth century, when a palpable “Hakka” way of life was established, which provided the environmental and material conditions for martial arts development. During this period, the Hakka lived in close-knit corporate clan groups, frequently in single-surname villages, and as a result local martial art styles were also named after specific surname groups, as for instance “Lam Family Teaching”, “Du Family Teaching”, “Chu Family Teaching”, etc. Hong Kong became the de facto centre for the Tung Kong tradition of Hakka martial arts after the mid-twentieth century as a result of the decimating effect of the Cultural Revolution. Archaic forms of rural Hakka kung fu such as Lam Gar Gau, Chu Gar Gau and Iron Ox Praying Mantis can still be found in traditional village settings in Sha Tau Kok, Sheung Shui, Yuen Long and other places in the New Territories.

鄉土傳統---客家武術源於福建與廣東交界山區腹地中的鄉村。這種客家功夫發展形式貫穿明代後期至清中葉18世紀中期。這時所謂的「客家」生活方式定型下來,其生活環境大大影響自身武術發展。這時期,客家人生活相 封閉,以單姓氏村落為主,使當地拳種主要以姓氏命名,如林家教、刁家教、朱家教等。香港自20世紀中期成為東江客家武術的中心。 保持客家武術相 古老面貌的林家教、朱家教及鐵牛螳螂等,仍然可在沙頭角、上水、元朗等新界地區尋找到。

The Itinerant Tradition – Beside the “family styles” which are firmly rooted in the agrarian setting, early Hakka martial arts in Hong Kong feature a number of “styles” which have a particularly close affiliation with the moving populations. From the second half of the eighteenth century through to the beginning of the twentieth century, large-scale Hakka migrations spawned new martial art forms, which were no longer rooted to specific villages or localities which characterized earlier Hakka kung fu. The outstanding features during this period are cultural fusion and the emergence of non-localized Hakka styles. These include various Hung Kuen styles such as Tung Kong Hung Kuen and Ching Lung Tam Hakka Hung Kuen. They also include “Drifting People’s Teachings” and “Rolling Rocks’ Teachings” which, as the name suggests, is closely connected to quarry-workers. These two styles have largely fallen into abeyance with a sharp decline from their heyday in the early to mid 20th century.

移民傳統---除了家傳技術外,由於移民的關係,為香港帶來了更多的拳種。自18世紀後期到20世紀初,大批的客家移民催生了更多的武術套路,他們不再以過去村 村之間或地區性地傳播。甚至這段時期產生了不同文化融合,如洪拳系統有東江洪拳及青龍潭客家洪拳等。游民教 滑石教等出現,流動人口及採石工人關係密切。這兩種拳種從20世紀初全盛時期至中葉急速消亡。

The Urban Tradition – From the mid-nineteenth to mid-twentieth century, many important Hakka kung fu masters moved from villages to cities. The most distinctive feature during this period was urbanization and hybridity, particularly in the early decades of the twentieth century, when Guangdong began to modernize and rapidly industrializing cities such as Guangzhou and Foshan attracted people from the countryside. In the 1930s Masters Cheung Lai Tseun and Lam Yiu Kwai moved from Hui Chau to Guangzhou. They found employment with Chen Jitang, Guangdong’s Military Governor from 1926-36, serving as his bodyguards and martial arts instructors in his army. At the same time, these two masters observed in close quarters masters of different – non-Hakka – traditions and eventually they devised their own new systems, Pakmei and Lung Ying (Dragon Style), which may be said to mark the beginning of “modern” Hakka kung fu. Both Cheung Lai Tseun and Lam Yiu Kwai moved to Hong Kong with their descendants in the mid-twentieth century following Chen Jitang’s overthrow.

城市傳統---自18世紀中葉至20世紀初,很多主要的客家功夫傳人從鄉村走出城鎮。這時期有很鮮明的城市化及重組現象出現,特別在20世紀初,廣州市發生翻天覆地的現代化城市化進程,吸引了大批鄉間的人民。1930年代,張禮泉 林耀桂從惠州到廣州市。他們歸到陳濟棠靡下(執政期1926-36),擔當武術教師。同時,他們兩人得到很多機會與來自不同地區的武師觀摩交流,最終發展了自己的白眉及龍形功夫系統,可以說開創了新式客家功夫的里程碑。後來陳濟棠失勢,張禮泉及林耀桂相繼落戶香港。